Mukti मुक्ति is a derivative of the root word Mukt, and means absolution, deliverance, emaciation, freedom, liberation, pardon, release, or salvation. In Indian religions and Indian philosophy, Moksha (Sanskrit: मोक्ष mokṣa), also called vimoksha, vimukti and mukti, means emancipation, liberation or release. The basic concept underlying mukti is that human life is in bondage on account of its own works (karma). The Sankhya view characterizes mukti as the cessation of the three types of pain (adhyatmika (natural), adhibhavika (guards), and adhidaivika (body/mind). The liberated soul having transcended the gunas goes beyond pleasure and pain. The yogic school prescribes dhyana (meditation) and samadhi (the state of pure, contentless consciousness) as means to liberation—the emptied consciousness shining with its own radiance. In Vedanta, mukti stands for the removal of duality (dvaita) and the merger of the self (Jivatman) with the Absolute (Brahman). The self then becomes resplendent as existent, intelligent and blissful (sat, cit, and ananda). Nirvana is the name for mukti in the Buddhist vocabulary, the two being considered mutually comparable in the same Thought category (Majjhimai 304). Nirvana literally means extinction, implying the extinction of ‘the five’—viz, rupa (form), sanjna (name), sanskara (impression), vijnana (knowledge) and vedana (pleasure-pain).
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